Formulating for Increased Shelf Life

'Fresh,' organic and other consumer trends are elbowing out some traditional technologies. But there are new techniques to keep food safe and salable.

By Frances Katz, Senior Technical Editor

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Arby’s Restaurants are specifying deli meats that have an extra margin of shelf life. "Just a couple of days can make a big difference," said a department manager at RTM Group, Atlanta, the largest franchisee of Arby's restaurants.

"We learned a lot about keeping roast beef tasting good with antioxidant material, and have extended that information in our new Market Fresh Party Platter and Market Fresh salads," the RTM official adds. The Platters, recently introduced in select Arby’s locations, use deli meats specifically selected for shelf life.

Keeping fat fresh can help improve the nutritional content of foods, according to a study at the University of Extremadura, Spain. Researchers found fat oxidation reduced the amount of essential fatty acids and vitamins and generated toxic compounds, reducing the nutrient content and increasing potentially harmful compounds.

The Extremadura scientists also studied the mechanism of protein oxidation and found rosemary extracts improved protein functionality as well as prevented lipid oxidation, thereby retarding the resulting soapy flavor in frankfurters.

Natural antioxidants have improved in the past several years, with much research devoted to the compounds. Vitamin E as tocopherol has been used in animal feed to increase the freshness of flavor in the final meat products. It also has been found to improve the stability of myoglobin in ground beef, providing better retention of color in final products.

A number of products have been developed. Archer Daniels Midland (, Decatur, Ill., offers vitamin E products made from "identity-preserved" grain. These can be certified as non-GMO. The product is in limited quantity because of the difficulty in ensuring grains are identity preserved and non-GMO.

"Producing vitamin E from only GMO-free grain is getting harder," notes Greg Dodson, ADM’s market manager for vitamin E and associated products. "We have to segregate non-GMO grains and keep them identity preserved, then process them separately. As more grain is grown from GMO germplasm, it’s harder to contract those acres and keep them separate. The cost is higher — sometimes 40 to 60 percent higher depending on quantity and degree of processing — but it’s one of the only products that can be used on organic food, so it’s worth it."

Vitamin E may be introduced into meat as a feed additive to the live animal. Studies by USDA, universities, feed manufacturers and vitamin manufacturers have shown vitamin E as a feed component does a number of interesting things. BASF Animal Nutrition (, Florham Park, N.J., found in studies of supplemental vitamin E in beef that color stabilization in the meat case was improved when animals were fed vitamin E.

Meat from vitamin E-enhanced beef stayed bright red longer (except for top sirloin steak) and had several hours more case life before color change occurred. The greatest increase was in beef round cuts. Different cuts retained the supplemental vitamin E differently, with tenderloin retaining much more of the vitamin than other cuts from the same animal.

Shelf Life: deli sausages
Rosemary extracts, like those from Kemin Food Ingredients, are easily dispersed in the brines used in making cooked deli meats. Use levels as low as 0.05-0.1 percent help delay the onset of oxidative rancidity.

Rosemary extracts are available from a number of companies and are used to retard the appearance of "warmed-over flavor" in beef products. "Rosemary extracts are available in water-based or powdered forms and are often used in fast-food burger patties, as well as products for retail," explains Jeff Sporrer, market manager for Kemin Inc. (, Des Moines, Iowa. "The improvement in shelf life is fairly dramatic."

Kristen Robbins, associate scientist at Kemin, says ground beef, as well as sausage from pork or poultry, can be improved with the addition of water-soluble liquid rosemary extract that is easily dispersed in the brines used in making cooked deli meats. Use levels as low as 0.05-0.1 percent help delay the onset of oxidative rancidity.

The use of either dry or liquid rosemary extract is useful in extending flavor and color of ground beef patties. "We see extension from 8 days to 11 or more," says Robbins. "The rosemary is added before the meat is ground. That protects highly saturated lipids within the muscle-cell membranes, which are the most susceptible to lipid oxidation, especially when grinding exposes these surfaces to oxygen and pro-oxidants such as salt and heme pigment."

Other antioxidants, including resveratrol (from grape skin extract) and pycnogenol (a phytochemical from tree bark) have shown promise in university trials on ground beef and poultry products. Both antioxidants are approved as GRAS.

Produce gains time

Research from the Southern Research Laboratories, New Orleans, of USDA’s Agricultural Research Service reveals that placing fruit under water during cutting can increase shelf life from 2-3 days to 6-8 days.

For produce in general, the addition of ascorbic acid and calcium to the water, at temperatures of about 150˚F, produces heat shock proteins that reduce the production of "wound proteins" and causes water and calcium to be imbibed into the cells. This firms prepared produce so it can be used as ingredients in salads or other prepared food applications. This technique allows fast food chains to add kid-friendly finger fruit with reduced loss of product.

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