“We look to expand brands that translate well emotionally, with benefits the consumer can Identify with,” he says.
Among the most difficult aspects of expanding internationally are understanding the regulatory differences and what is appropriate to say and claim on the package, according to Spalding. “Add translations to the mix,” he says, “and the complexities become a real challenge. We apply a very rigorous process, including both redundant legal and translation support. Imagine going into a country with language requirements and no one speaks the language in your company!
“Post-9/11, the border also can become quite a challenge,” Spalding continues. “Making sure appropriate declarations are made and all paperwork has been processed and vetted prior to crossings is critical.” He notes it can be a real benefit to seek help from outside agencies specializing in international transportation.
Distribution is always a challenge, Spalding points out. “Distributors are the conduit to your consumer and you must be on the shelf or it is all for naught. Pre-sell your way into new markets prior to setting it all up. Make sure once your products hit the marketplace they have a home. It's a good idea to have multiple customer trade lined up but,” he cautions, “nothing is sure until the ink is dry.”
The importance of well-constructed distribution channels is seconded by Jeff McLemore, product manager for Sunsweet Growers Inc. The majority of the company’s products still are processed and packed in its Yuba City, Calif., plant. But, as the world's largest handler of prunes, apricots and other dried tree fruits, the grower-owned cooperative handles production and distribution of more than one-third of the prune market worldwide.
Sunsweet directs a global network that provides products under the Sunsweet brand in more than 60 countries, making it a true global brand. “One key tip we employ when dealing with our overseas concerns is to establish good relationships by performing test marketing rather than simply rolling out over large areas,” says McLemore. “We also ‘overcommunicate’ rather than allow issues to get lost in translation.”
Another important but oft-overlooked technique McLemore suggests is to do the homework necessary to create and allow for realistic timelines when managing overseas operations.
A game of chicken
Tyson country manager Jim Rice signed documents setting up Tyson’s operations in China. While he hired a local management team, Rice remains in China and stays in contact with Tyson headquarters. You can’t run a Chinese plant from Arkansas, he says.
Tyson country manager Jim Rice visits a street market in China: When Kentucky Fried Chicken set up shop in China, the fast-food chain wanted a familiar partner like Tyson handling local sourcing of chicken.
, Springdale, Ark., understands global in a big way. The protein giant, with plants in 20 countries and an established presence on three continents, produces, processes and sells more than $25 billion poultry, pork and beef products a year. As with many companies, Tyson has a strong foothold in China and a decades-long track record in the rapidly escalating market there. Tyson Foods Inc.
“Compared to other opportunities, any country you could go to — even a substantial business in East Europe or South America — would be nothing more than a ‘rounding error’ compared to China,” says James Rice, vice president and country manager-China for Tyson.
Tyson is responsible for a substantial portion of U.S. chicken product exports to China. This includes about enough frozen chicken feet to give one to every man, woman and child in the world’s most populous country.
“China’s economic growth, at 10 percent yearly, ‘times’ the population base equals the greatest economic boom in the history of humankind,” Rice exclaims. “China moved 300 million people out of poverty and created 100 million middle-class consumers. Within 20 years China will have purchasing power parity equal to the U.S., and in 30 years will surpass it.”
Rice warns that, even if a company is a world leader in its niche, it soon will lose that lead by ignoring China. Tyson started working with China in 1991 exporting chicken and chicken parts to China. The company recognized early on that product considered waste, such as chicken feet and wing tips, were prized in China. In a normal business year for the poultry industry, one quarter of the profits is derived from exports to China, Rice notes.
The company quickly moved into building plants there, to serve both domestic and global needs. “Inside China, we have a processing facility for nuggets and patties for global customers, and a pork processing plant in Shanghai for primarily domestic consumption,” says Rice.
Tyson is starting a fully integrated poultry operation — “from egg to table” — outside of Shanghai. It will be the first built for operation at the highest hygiene level and will provide raw chicken in tray-packs, increasing average shelf-life of chicken from 24 hours to 14 days.
Think locally, wrap globally
The U.S. is seeing rapidly accelerating consumer demand for fair-trade, eco-friendly and sustainable business practices. Not carrying these green concepts overseas can smack of colonialism to those behind that agenda here.
More on the web
“Four steps to China: One billion hungry customers await you” offers an overview of what it takes to establish a food processing operation in the People's Republic of China. The webcast features Tyson’s Jim Rice plus Alex Bryant, president of East West Associates; and Jeff Olin, managing partner of international tax services for accounting firm Grant Thornton LLP.
But globally sourcing food packaging — eco-friendly or otherwise — can be fairly intimidating, cautions Luke Vernon, vice president of operations for the Boulder, Colo.-based Eco-Products Inc., maker of compostable plastic products.
“There are several steps that should be taken to ensure proper safety and procedures exist when it comes to product packaging overseas,” he says. “First, although U.S. law doesn't require importers to verify factory working conditions and certifications, processors should visit the factory they want to do business with. It's important to see first-hand what the working conditions are like and to build a good relationship from the start.” Vernon cites the importance of face-to-face meetings in other cultures.
Regarding certifications of overseas plants, some of the most important ones in the food packaging industry are ISO and HACCP. Vernon recommends having third parties audit the factories to ensure they meet both processor and customers’ standards.
“Additionally,” Vernon adds, “conducting third-party tests of the products is important for verifying the products are what the factories say they are. Sadly, there are factories out there that will promise one product and manufacture a different, modified product.”
Eco-Products works with the Biodegradable Products Institute to certify its products are compostable. BPI has biodegradability standards for food packaging and ensures claims of product biodegradability are legitimate.
Vernon also recommends companies randomly conduct content analyses of such packaging products and test for the existence of certain dangerous materials, for example lead. Although there are no U.S. government regulations requiring such testing in foodservice disposables, the tests are important for building customer confidence and ensuring what is promised is what is delivered.