Meanwhile, starch-based products can play similar roles, and they also allow flexibility for a number of applications including baked and frozen foods.
“We have a range of specialty starches that can partially or completely replace gelatin in gummy-type candies,” says Ricardo Rodriguez, with the confectionery division of Ingredion Inc., Westchester, Ill. “These specialty starches can provide similar textures as gelatin if needed or improve the texture. In addition, they can increase the overall shelf life of the product. Our specialty starches offer cost savings over gelatin and can be used in vegetarian/halal/kosher products to meet consumers' dietary requirements.”
Ingredion's starch-derived ingredients also have applications in savory, dairy and beverage categories.
Chocolate or vanilla?
Chocolate is another ingredient that can be critical to the quality of a product, but can add a good deal of cost in the wrong year.
“Some of the main ingredients used in cocoa and chocolate products, such as cocoa beans and vegetable oils, are traded as commodities,” says Courtney LeDrew, marketing manager with Cargill Cocoa and Chocolate NA, Lititz, Pa. “As a result, prices for such ingredients fluctuate with the market.
"To help our customers minimize risk and manage costs, Cargill has a portfolio of flexible risk management resources that can be tailored to fit customer needs," LeDrew continues. "For example, Cargill has research teams located in origin countries to offer timely supply and demand insights, as well as a dedicated risk management team. We can also provide in-depth commodity reports to help customers make better buying and formulating decisions.”
Lowering the cost of a formula by choosing a percentage of less expensive ingredients is an option, but it might take some work and finesse to arrive at a new formula that passes muster.
“When ingredients are substituted, it is important to make sure the new formulation maintains functionality and does not introduce complexity to the production process,” says Stacy Reed, Cargill Cocoa's product development manager. “In addition, sensory and consumer testing is necessary to ensure the new formulation meets parity.”
Asked which ingredients are key to a premium dessert product like Eli's plain and flavored cheesecakes, Anderson points out the same grade of vanilla has been used in every batch since the company began making cheesecakes as part of a restaurant business more than 40 years ago. On its website, Eli's even specifies that is uses Nielsen-Massey Madagascar Bourbon vanilla.
Pound-per-pound, vanilla, especially the top-quality stuff, is very expensive. But Craig Nielsen, CEO of Nielsen-Massey Vanilla, Waukegan, Ill., says vanilla typically makes up a small percentage of the overall ingredient bill and therefore a smaller percentage of the cost of a product than one might expect.
“You can always cut corners depending on the market, the product and how you want to market it to consumers,” Nielsen says. “Pure vanilla has different grades and quality from the same origins. Lower qualities are lower priced. And vanillin and vanilla flavored WONFs [with other natural flavors] do provide cost savings, but not the complexity that comes from pure vanilla."
Vanilla prices have been known to fluctuate. In 1999, a cyclone in Madagascar wiped out the largest part of the global vanilla crop for the year and had repercussions for more than five years as the growing stock recovered. The price jumped from $50 per kilo to more than $600, but once the crops were back to normal, the price dropped right back to where it had been, and it has remained fairly stable for more than seven years, Nielsen says.
The bee's knees
Eli's classic plain cheesecake was indeed served at President Obama's Inaugural Staff Ball in 2013. For its cheesecakes, Eli's creates a signature, all-butter shortbread crust, and keeping that crust consistent is crucial. Over the past year or two, Eli's has worked with Tate and Lyle, Hoffman Estates, Ill., to identify starch products that will offer a broader variety of functions and consistent results.
“We had two different types of modified food starches, and now we have 12 or 13,” Eli's Anderson says. “We went to them and said, 'Hey, we have got a problem,' and they broke it down for us and told us we weren't always using the right starch.”
Eli's newest cheesecake flavors include Key Lime Pie, Vanilla Bean, Chocolate Espresso and Honey Mediterranean with Pistachios. Honey Mediterranean is made with salted honey (from honey harvested by students at the Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences) as well as toasted pistachios and almonds. It sells for $54 mail ordered from Eli's website.
While many of its high-end products can sell for $40 or better, Eli's does take steps to protect its bottom line against manifold increases in ingredient prices, Anderson says.
Gourmet ingredients help make a premium product, for certain, but even everyday ingredients such as ground beef and eggs can fall into short supply. With the ongoing drought in the western U.S., especially California, there may be more reason than ever for food processors to begin thinking about how to go about replacing ingredients without spoiling the soup.
A product developer with a very large multinational company says the drought could have serious consequences.
“If California doesn't get some rain soon, there will be big problems for fruits and vegetables,” says the product developer, who asked not to be named. “It could blind side everybody in the food industry. There's only a small window to make the whole year's [industrial] supply of tomato paste, and the tomatoes may not be there.
That said, a large company can use its leverage.
“We put a lot of pressure on our suppliers to keep prices down," he continues. "We're big enough that we can do that, even if they have to absorb the cost. Sometimes we agree to increase quantities to keep the price down.”
The vagaries of weather are not alone in prompting changes in ingredient selections. Often changes are driven by consumer trends.
“Market trends or demands for gluten-free products, egg replacement and fat reduction in many applications have all been growing over the past five to six years,” says Gum Technology's Brooks.
Whether it's eggs, dairy or fats that need to be replaced, custom hydrocolloids can stand in, he says. “These can easily be replaced with a system of gums and starches which will hold the texture and impart creaminess.”