Formulation Trends: Sodium Stand-Ins

Salt adds taste, stabilizes the leavening process and acts as natural preservative. But food companies are faced with reducing salt in many foods. What they replace it with depends on the formulation, and must be carefully selected.

By Lauren R. Hartman, Product Development Editor

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Americans love salt. Despite public health efforts to encourage people to cut back on sodium, they now consume about 3,400mg per day, nearly 50 percent more than the 2,300-mg limit recommended by the FDA's guidelines issued last June. "Experts at the Institute of Medicine have concluded that reducing sodium intake to 2,300mg per day can significantly help reduce blood pressure and ultimately prevent hundreds of thousands of premature illnesses and deaths," explains Susan Mayne, director of the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

"Because the majority of sodium in our diets comes from processed and prepared foods, consumers are challenged in lowering their sodium intake themselves."

The FDA guidance recommends goals for sodium chloride reduction in more than 150 food categories and will allow companies to measure their actions against transparent and verifiable measures. The lower recommended amount will also soon be carried on the revised 2018 Nutrition Facts panels.

Though salt is essential and makes foods tastier and more flavorful, more consumers are recognizing its dangers. Thus, for nearly a decade, food and beverage manufacturers have been hunting for ingredients such as potassium chloride, natural flavor enhancers, masking agents, sea salt crystals and other salt replacers to lower sodium in foods and replicate many of its benefits.

Salt matters

But it's not all that straightforward, as salt plays an important role not just in taste but in food preservation and processability. Salt denatures proteins, can stabilize the leavening process, is antimicrobial and reduces the need for artificial solutions to food safety and health requirements -- all things no other single ingredient can do.

Also, salt alternatives usually command price premiums over cost-effective sodium chloride.

"Removing or reducing salt can affect the texture or mouthfeel of a finished product," says Roger Lane, marketing manager of savory flavors at Sensient Flavors & Fragrances (, Hoffman Estates, Ill. "Consumers believe low sodium equals low flavor, so reducing sodium in a non-perceptible way is challenging. And salt is one of the least expensive ingredients outside of water in any formulation, so there will [likely] be a cost increase when using substitutes."

Some manufacturers have been more successful at reducing sodium than others. Mars, which makes Uncle Ben's rice, said it reduced sodium in its products by 25 percent from 2007 to 2012 and plans to reduce it further by another 20 percent by 2021. General Mills says it has reduced sodium in more than 350 products.

Name change may help

One challenge is minimizing sodium in meat. Meat processors have been asking ingredient suppliers for salt options that can enhance meat's flavor, preserve it and make it more succulent. In low-sodium/savory formulations, they've found potassium chloride can keep meat tender and juicy and act as a preservative. The salt replacer also is a great substitute for a small group of consumers deficient in potassium, and was developed specifically as such.

Nu TekSaltResearchers at Unilever (which owns brands like Hellmann's, Knorr and Ben and Jerry's) published a peer-reviewed academic journal article in April 2016, concluding that potassium chloride is a "valuable, safe replacer" for sodium chloride. The scientists expect more of the company's food products will incorporate potassium chloride, gradually weaning consumers off of higher sodium levels. The main problem is potassium chloride's slightly bitter/metallic taste, which can be masked by umami-rich replacer products.

To ease consumer confusion and distrust of the potassium chloride moniker, Campbell Soup (, Camden, N.J. (which has developed 25-percent lower-sodium soups), and more than 15 other food manufacturers, have backed a citizen’s petition from NuTek Food Science (, Minnetonka, Minn., asking the FDA to allow "potassium salt" be used as an alternate name for potassium chloride on food labels. NuTek, a producer of potassium chloride and other salt substitutes, filed the petition with the FDA in June 2016, emphasizing that "many consumers are confused and/or misled by the name potassium chloride" and they "mis-associate it with chlorine or other chemicals."

The timing is good for this name change push, as food processors start updating Nutrition Facts panels to meet next year's deadline. "Potassium salt is something consumers immediately understand and embrace," points out Brian Boor, NuTek's president and COO. "Especially when they know sodium is over-consumed and potassium is under-consumed. Some foods contain an unnecessary level of sodium, and simple sodium removal can occur without dramatically impacting these attributes.

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